Atlantico: According to a study published by The Lancet (1990-2016: "A systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016"), widely reported, there would be no "healthy" level of alcohol consumption, contrary to what is sometimes indicated, particularly by another study also by the lancet last April ("Risk thresholds for alcohol use: combined analysis of data from individual participants for 599 912 current drinkers in 83 propsectivate studies"). How to explain these sometimes contradictory studies and how to make the difference?
Tobacco and alcohol are two defendants: the first is convicted, the second is accused only
Stéphane Gayet When we talk about the various contributing factors or risk factors for this or that disease in medicine, alcohol and tobacco are often associated. So much so that doctors have become accustomed to the use of the term "alcohol-tobacco intoxication" to indicate an impregnation of these two substances for years. It is true that these two toxins potentiate in a very effective way to increase the likelihood of many diseases, especially cancers.
But these two poisonings are radically different. The dried tobacco leaves are burned in a cigarette at a temperature often higher than 700 ° C: the smoke that escapes and is inhaled shares some points with those of the chimney of a fire. wood. It contains about 4000 substances, of which more than 40 are carcinogenic. In addition to the desired effects of nicotine, tobacco smoke is 100% toxic and that of the first cigarette.
But with alcohol it is completely different. There is only one toxic substance, ethanol or ethyl alcohol or wine alcohol, which is the product of the alcoholic fermentation of sugars (glucose and fructose). In wine, ethanol is associated with a large number of vegetable substances that are responsible for the smell and taste of alcoholic beverages. Ethanol, a highly volatile solvent, is the vehicle of wine flavors & # 39; s. These vegetable flavors come from the non-fermentable parts of the fruit (for the grape: stem and stalks of the bunch, seeds and remains of skin and pulp) and the oak slats from which the barrel is made. The aging of the wine in oak barrels enriches it with high-quality tannins from this tree essence, which is truly unique. While aging during a barrel, the tannins can only come from the bunch of grapes and essentially the stem (ie the stem and stalks). This difference between oak tannins and tannins is important for the oenological quality of a wine.