Menopause is defined as the last menstruation of the woman. On average, this happens at the age of 51 in Western countries, such as Brazil.
According to an article in the scientific journal Climateric, the long-term effects of early menopause include reduced cognition, mood swings, increased risk of heart attack, loss of bone density, sexual dysfunction, as well as an increased risk of premature death.
Menopause can amount to about 10% of women because of various factors. According to the gynecologist and gynecological surgeon, Edvaldo Cavalcante, the causes are divided between natural and those caused by medical interventions, such as elimination of the ovaries, drugs to treat cancer and chemotherapy, for example.
"According to the literature and with the scientific evidence of early menopause it is possible to take some measures to prevent this from happening." The first recommendation for women who smoke is to seek treatment to stop smoking for example because smoking can lead to a number of other conditions, such as breast cancer, "says Cavalcante;
The doctor also recommends that women take care of the weight. "Although we have more overweight people in Brazil than below, it is ideal to maintain a healthy life, through a balanced diet and regular exercise, and the woman must strive to maintain the ideal weight for her body composition. It is also possible to postpone the age of the menarche if the girl shows premature puberty. "
Some risk factors for natural premature menopause
Menarche at the age of 11 years or younger. One of the natural causes of early menopause, according to a study that evaluated 51 450 thousand women, is the early age of menarche, ie the first menstruation. In the study, 7.6% of women entered menopause between the ages of 40 and 44 years. Women who are menstruating at the age of 11 or younger are more likely to start early menopause. (risk 1.32 times larger)
No children: the same study related the age of the menarche to zero variability (women who took early and did not have children). Women with precocious menarche and nulliparous women (who had no children) were twice as likely to enter menopause before the age of 45 compared to men who had menarche at age 12 or older and had two or more children .
Lower normal weight: a recently published study published in the journal Human Reproduction showed that overweight women at any age (lower body mass index (ICM at 18.5 kg / m2) had a 30%
women who had a BMI of less than 17.5 kg / m2 at the age of 18, the risk was 50% higher and increased to 59% at the age of 35. Another finding in the study was that rapid weight loss , about 10 pounds or more, between 18 and 30 years, the risk of early menopause with 2.4 times increased
Smoking: several studies over the years related to early menopause.
Symptoms and treatments  Symptoms of an early menopause are the same as those of the menopause that occur in menopausal women within the expected age, including irregularities in the menstrual cycle, hot flashes, vaginal dryness, changes in mood, reduced libido, among others. Menopause is confirmed after 12 consecutive months without menstruation.
According to the doctor, early menopause should be followed to prevent the known consequences of this phase of the woman's life.
"It is important to assess the need for hormone replacement to alleviate the symptoms, to prevent the development of osteoporosis and to reduce the cardiovascular risk." Treatment should also include the improvement of the sexual life of the woman ", the gynecologist ends.