The sixteenth century was a dangerous moment in history for the nose and ears, and even for the lips.
All the knights wore swords, and although it was not always legal, they often solved their differences with a duel … and those parts of the body often suffered the defense of honor.
The eccentric astronomer of Denmark Tycho Brahe, for example, I used a denture nose made of copper instead of the one he lost when he was 20 years old in a duel against another Danish nobleman due to disagreement about mathematics.
Fortunately, by the end of that century, the art of surgery had developed in such a way that it could supply noses, ears and artificial but living lips to the lords, especially those who passed northern Italy.
It was there that Gaspare Tagliacozzi worked, the professor at the University of Bologna, one of the major medical centers of that time.
Tagliacozzi (1545-1599) published a book in 1597 under the title: "YOUA new surgery in art, so far unknownor by everyone, to restore the lack of noses, ears and lips, by grafting arm skin".
There it was caught the childhood of plastic surgery.
The face, reflection of the soul
It was the first and, for connoisseurs, perhaps one of the best books exclusively devoted to plastic surgery.
He wrote it under the impulse of the Renaissance – which emerged from Italy in the fourteenth century and reached its peak in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries – which marked a transition in civilization, and formed the basis of modern anatomical studies in medicine.
Previously, the methods to repair the damaged nose in duels or other forms of fighting were kept as secrets in the families of "barber surgeons", who treated face or facial injuries, which was crucial at a time when it was believed that the disfigures on the face reflected the disfigurements of the soul.
And although other authors had discussed aspects of plastic surgery, Tagliacozzi was the first to establish his scientific validity and to improve techniques in the light of advances in medical knowledge at the time.
In addition to rhinoplasty, he detailed the procedures of reconstructive surgery for lips and ears.
Tagliacozzi's ability was famous throughout Europe, and his treatise, which summarized his life's work, describes the theory behind the procedure, describes the instrumentation and progressive steps for surgery, as well as postoperative bandage and care.
The operation was performed in phases, without anesthesia and lasted for weeks.
During the last 20 days the patient had to stay with the palm of one hand, fixed with bandages to the top of the head, as the following engraving illustrates.
One end of the graft thus covers the part that requires healing – in this case the nose – and the other was still attached to the forearm, to the skin & # 39; fed & # 39; and keep alive.
However painful and uncomfortable it was, it represented a tremendous development in a type of operation that, although Europe still did not know it, had a long history.
The Indian method
The "Italian method" of rhinoplasty differed from the "Indian method" that was applied by surgeons such as Súsrata.
Susrata was an Indian surgeon who practiced this method from about 500 BC.
Your encyclopedia, "Sushruta samita", is one of the classical texts of Ayurvedic medicine, which was translated into Arabic in 700 AD.
This contains descriptions of the many branches of surgical practice.
One of the techniques described was the rhinoplasty: the Indian surgeons have practiced this technique a lot since then it was usual that to those who had committed crimes them cut nose.
It took some time before Súsrata's surgical techniques reached Europe.
In fact, it was not until 1794 that he came to the English-speaking world when the technique of "Indian rhinoplasty" was described in the Gentleman & # 39; s Magazine of London.
Once unveiled, the new technique was quickly adopted and was very successful.
The problem, however, was that the Indian method removed the skin for the prosthesis of the forehead or cheek.
And the rest, it's history
Over time, rhinoplasty went from a procedure to restore a lost nose due to a punishment or an accident to one where the size or shape of the nose has changed.
The first time it was registered as an operation for cosmetic purposes was in 1898, when a surgeon operated a young man whose nose made him so embarrassed that he could not leave his home.
nose job became common among the actors and actresses of Hollywood from the 1930s.
A few decades later, the worrying number of people who "adapted" to adapt to contemporary ideals aroused the concern that people – especially women – felt compelled to adhere to a notion of artificial beauty for their self-esteem.
But the explosion in that and all kinds of treatments to try to reach the ideal of the moment in terms of physical beauty was such that having a nose that was obviously made & # 39; does not even attract attention.