The key to change it blood groups they would be in the gut, since the enzyme of the bacterium in the digestive tract can eliminate sugars that determine and transform them into red blood cells blood cells, researchers suggest.
A recent study, presented at a meeting of the American Chemical Society in Boston, found a reliable way to blood of the donor in the universal type (type O) necessary for safe and emergency transfusions.
the enzymes created by bacterium in the human digestive tract can eliminate sugars they determine the blood type of the surface of red blood cells in the laboratory. This is important because sugars or antigens can cause devastating immune reactions in a person's body.
some enzymes in the past has been discovered, blood group B can change into type Obut the group of enzymes recently discovered is the first that makes it possible to effectively change type A into type O. "That has always been the biggest challenge," lead author Stephen Withers, a biochemist at the University of British Columbia, told reporters.
As you know, the blood type Or it has a lot of demand, because it has no antigens in its cell membranes, so it's "universal type" and people of any kind blood they can get a transfusion without their immune system reacting to red blood cells.
On the contrary, red blood cells Type A, B and AB they have specific antigens on their surface, which means that people with blood group A can only donate to recipients A or AB, and those with Blood B They can only donate to people with the same blood group.
Therefore, stripping these blood groups from their antigens before transfusion can convert all types of blood into universal donors, but researchers still have to find this enzymes safe and efficient enough to do the job.
Now Withers and his colleagues share the results of their studies that show that enzymes made with DNA extracted from gut-human microbes could eliminate type A and B antigens from red blood cells.
They found these enzymes with a method called metagenomics. Instead of growing microbes after microbes in a thorough process, the research team simply extracted DNA from all microorganisms in the gut of humans.
So they took in one go the DNA blueprints for everything these micro-organisms could do, including: enzymes They help bacteria to remove sugar proteins called mucin from the walls of the digestive tract.
In molecular terms mucins look a lot like the antigens of blood cells, so blood group B to type O can play a dual role, according to Withers and his team at the meeting, the scientific portal reported. LiveScience.
This too enzymes were 30 times more effective to eliminate antigens A than the one enzyme better performance previously proposed for this purpose, and after the elimination is complete, any surplus can easily disappear from the red blood cells with "a simple washing step".
However, the next step will be to enzymes for safety, a project that Withers and his colleagues have already started in collaboration with hematologists at Canadian Blood Services, the non-profit organization that blood donors in Canada.