91 years after the departure of Saad Zaghloul, the leader of the house of the nation and the leader of the 1919 revolution against the British occupation, and his memory remains immortal in the hearts of millions of loved ones and lovers of the Egyptians and not only the Wafdis who saw and experienced his sacrifices and sacrifices in political life.
Saad Zaghloul … and Copper Pasha
Abi Wafd Party, led by Counselor Bahaa Abu Shata, to spend the anniversary of the departure of the two historic poles of Saad Zaghloul and Mustapha Al-Nahhas Pasha, the first day yesterday, the twenty-third of August, which coincides with their memory of The same day, and the preparation of their long history to read Fatihah for them, have passed The mausoleum, today "Saturday", our gratitude and appreciation for what they have left behind and the legacy of achievements and championships and sacrifices.
The rise of the life of the leader of the house of the nation
The founder and the beginning contributed to the formation of the personality of the leader of the house of the nation, where he was born in the village of Ibayana, currently from the center of Fawa "currently" directorate of the former western "Kafr El- Sheikh currently ", and his father was the head of the village sheikh and when he died Omar Saad 5 years, Ahmed Zaghloul, was trained in the book and joined Al-Azhar in 1873
Talmaz Zaghloul of Gamal al-Din al-Afghani and Sheikh Mohammed Abdo, and then cooperated with him in the Egyptian facts, he moved to the post of assistant to the Ministry of Interior but was separated from him for his participation in the Arabi -revolution. .
He then became deputy prosecutor in 1892, and received a Bachelor of Law in 1897.
The latter was a defender of Qasim Amin and his book "Women & # 39; s Liberation" until he was appointed knowledge scientist in 1906 and in 1910 was appointed as a lawyer.
In 1907, Saad was one of the main contributors to the establishment of the Egyptian university with Mohammed Abdo, Mohammed Farid and Qasim Amin. The University was established in the Ganaklis Palace, the American University at the moment, and Ahmed Lutfi El Sayed as the first president. At the establishment of the club Ahli in 1907 and took the presidency on 18 July 1907.
After the First World War, the opposition in the Legislative Assembly, which formed the core of the Wafd group, later demanded independence and abolished the protection.
Opposite the English occupation
Saad got the idea to form the Egyptian delegation to defend the Egyptian case in 1918 against the British occupation, where he invited his companions to a mosque and in secret talks in the summer, while it had to be done after the end of the First World War in 1918 to discuss the Egyptian issue.
The Egyptian delegation, including Saad Zaghloul, Abdel Aziz Fahmy, Ali Sharaoui and others, called himself the Egyptian delegation and collected signatures from the stakeholders to prove their representativeness.
Refused on the island of Malta
Then the leader of the nation's house was arrested and exiled to the island of Malta in the Mediterranean and he and a group of his comrades on March 8, 1919.
The moment of the revolution
The revolution, which was one of the strongest factors in the leadership of Saad Zaghloul, forced England to isolate the British ruler. The English liberated Saad Zaghloul and his colleagues and returned from exile to Egypt. England sent the Egyptian delegation under the direction of Saad Zaghloul to the peace conference in Paris.
Saad Zaghloul denied the second time
The members of the Peace Conference in Paris did not respond to the demands of the Egyptian delegation: the Egyptians returned to the revolution and increased their enthusiasm. The people boycott the English goods. The British arrested Sa & # 39; ad Zaghloul again and returned to the island of Seychelles in the Indian Ocean. But again failed.
He returned from exile and founded the Egyptian Wafd party and went to the parliamentary elections in 1923, where the Wafd party succeeded in taking over the premiership from 1923 to 1924. The murder of Sir Lee Stack, commander of the Egyptian army and ruler of Sudan, was carried out by the British occupation authorities as an excuse to put the government under pressure The Egyptian.
Al-Allenby warned the ministry of Saad Zaghloul and demanded that the Egyptian government apologize for this crime, as well as the perpetrators of this crime and instigators of trial and punishment, in addition to a half a million pounds sterling to the British government, and to withdraw the Egyptian armed forces from Sudan, Increase the acreage of cultivated land in Sudan.
The British tried to keep Egypt out of Sudan to separate Great Britain and Sudan and Egypt into economic competition over the cotton harvest and the rise of England as defender of the interests of Sudan towards Egypt.
Saad Zaghloul agreed with the first three points and refused the fourth.
The English troops evacuated Egyptian army units with force from Sudan and Saad Zaghloul resigned.
King Fuad appointed Zeyor Pasha as head of the ministry and resolved the parliament, but parliamentarians met outside the parliament and decided to appoint Saad Zaghloul prime minister. The British government sent naval units off the coast of Alexandria in a threatening demonstration Saad Zaghloul decided to abandon the premier's idea. Not to expose Egypt to a new catastrophe as happened in 1882.
His resignation was accepted on November 24, 1924, and he fought a conflict with King Fouad and the minority groups who cooperated with the king in defense of the constitution, and culminated in the victory of the Wafd party by a parliamentary majority again in 1927. Saad was elected chairman of the Second Chamber until his death in 1927.
Death of Saad Zaghloul
Saad Zaghloul died on August 23, 1927 and was buried in the Saad Mosque, known as the nation house, built in 1931 to bury a nation leader and a leader of a revolution against the British occupation.
English revolution (revolution of 1919).
Government of copper Pasha
On August 23, 1927, the new ministry met at that time under the leadership of Abdul Khaleq Pasha Tharwat, and decided to commemorate the leader Saad Zaghloul and build a large mausoleum with his body and bear all expenditures.
In 1936, the government of the delegation was established under the leadership of Mustafa Pasha Al-Nahas. The mother of the Egyptians asked for the transfer of the body of Saad Pasha to his tomb in the astronomical street overlooking the house.On 19 June 1936 Al-Nahhas Pasha set the date for the transfer of the remains of the leader of the nation after he had been in the tomb of Imam Shafei for almost nine years.
Buyer and his role in the 1919 revolution
In the footsteps of his late teacher Saad Zaghloul, Mustafa Pasha al-Nahas joined the Law School and graduated here in 1900. He refused to work with the prosecutor and remained in law until 1903. When Abdul Khaleq Pasha Tharwat introduced the work of the judiciary within the Ministry of Hussein Rushdie Pasha during his term of office of the Ministry of the Right, Buyer offered this, but Tharwat convinced him to accept the job before it.
During the Revolution of 1919 he played an important role in the Tanta Court and was a lawyer for the secondary school club. He organized the lawyer strike with Abdul Aziz Fahmi. He was also the mediator between the personnel committee in Cairo and the committee in Tanta.Hij bore the pamphlets in his clothes and distributed them to the people, he was dismissed as a judge due to his political activism and became secretary-general of the delegation in Cairo until he returned from Paris, where he opened a law firm.
The Melnar project was presented and approved by the agricultural landowners within the delegation, representing 83% of the delegation and declaring that this was the maximum that could be collected.
Saad Zaghloul saw that this offer was not appropriate after the revolution, Saad Zaghloul wrote on August 22, 1920 for Copper, Wassef and Afifi, presented the Melaner project, the problem of concessions and the continuation of British protection.
The buyer was in Cairo at the moment, while Saad was in Europe, and the members of the delegation in Cairo and those returning from abroad had to present the project to the people with a neutral expression. The buyer received the message from Saad, but it was only the presentation of the project with absolute neutrality, which suggests that it does not support it without making explicit, and suggested that the buyer then write the reservations made by the people about the project. made, which means that the project is unacceptable in its current form.
He was responsible for the Egyptian-British treaty in 1936, but abolished it later, which led to anti-British riots. In January 1952, after his revolution, he was imprisoned between 1953 and 1954 by his wife Zeinab al-Wakil and then retired in general.