Wheat & # 39; s DNA card discovered after 13 years

"We are in a better position than ever to increase yields, grow plants with higher nutritional value and create varieties that are adapted to climate change thanks to the research we and the global community publish."

The prestigious journal, Science, published this week, the world's first detailed roadmap of the wheat genome, paving the way for faster precision cultivation of improved varieties of what is a major global food crop.

More than 200 scientists in 20 countries worked together to train the results in 13 years, according to the International Wheat Genome Sequencing Consortium (IWGSC).

"This could lead to higher incomes for farmers, better nutrition for world population and new wheat varieties."

At MSU, Budak and colleagues in the Department of Plant Sciences and Plant Pathology have recently ranked the Montana barley culture Hackett and are now sequencing a Montana winter wheat cultivar, Yellowstone.

Wheat has 16 billion base pairs – the building blocks of DNA – five times more than humans. The article is entitled "Changing the limits in research and breeding of wheat using a fully annotated reference genome". International Wheat Genome Sequencing Consortium describes the sequence of the 21 chromosomes of the plant.

"It is expected that by 2050 the world will need 60% more wheat to meet global demand". It also serves as an important source of vitamins and minerals.

An important crop for food security, wheat is the staple food of more than a third of the global human population and accounts for almost 20 percent of total calories and protein consumption by people worldwide, more than any other single food source, according to the FAO. "The bread wheat genome sequence has already had a positive effect on the wheat improvement, which not only influences the science behind wheat breeding, but also has a long-term positive result with regard to the productivity of wheat producers, the profitability and, ultimately, livelihood. "

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"We believe we can improve wheat improvement in the coming years in the same way that rice and maize were refined after their sequences were completed."

However, sequencing of the genome proved to be a major challenge

Experts say that the world needs more disease-resistant varieties and breeds that can grow with less water in a warmer environment.

To achieve this, scientists have tinkered with wheat DNA to improve the health and production of this staple. crop.

"With an estimated coverage of 94 percent of the genome and 107,891 highly trusting gene models, this assembly enabled the discovery of tissue and developmental-stage coexpression networks by providing a transcriptome atlas representing the major stages of wheat development." conclude the researchers.

Sequencing of the genome has been a huge challenge for scientists.

Professor Appels said it is something like a Google map for wheat. The second adds annotations and notes to supplement the general findings, in an attempt to help breeders and other scientists in adjusting wheat.

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