Aïd EL KEBIR – This Tuesday, August 21, Muslims around the world celebrate one of the most important days of Islam, Eid el Kebir. On this occasion an animal is sacrificed to serve as a feast.
[Mis à jour le 21 août 2018 à 11h02] Like every year, Brigitte Bardot is outraged by Eid el Kebir and killing sheep that were killed on Tuesday. Today all Muslims of the world celebrate Eid, around a large meal, the center of which is a sacrificial animal (usually a sheep or a goat). The animal activist distributed a statement, written and posted yesterday, to express his dismay and anger, speaking of a "gruesome feast". "Everywhere in France an unacceptable deviation makes this bloody and primitive offer possible," she writes, and even speaks of "extermination". Brigitte Bardot adds that Eid el Kebir is "a day of mourning, sorrow, revolt and tears" for her.
In France more than 100,000 sheep are slaughtered on the occasion of Eid el-Kebir. But beware, the slaughter is done according to very strict rules. The Ministry of Agriculture supervises the killing of animals every year. Brigitte Bardot is right on one point: during Eid el Kebir, ritual slaughter is an exception to classical slaughter practices, which impose a prior stunning of animals for bleeding. The government justifies this derogation to "ensure the free exercise of religious practices", but specifies that it is necessary to ensure "compliance with the regulations relating to animal protection, food hygiene and the protection of the environment" ". Agriculture, despite the derogation, insists on a measure: "Animals must be immobilized prior to bleeding by conforming restrictions, whereby cattle, sheep and goats must be mechanically immobilized" (see here the exact instructions for bleeding, meant for "animal welfare") " to enforce).
The slaughter of Eid el Kebir, a ritual framed by the law
According to the practical guide issued by the Ministry of Agriculture for this occasion, the slaughter of animals must be carried out in slaughterhouses approved by the state. The slaughter of animals outside these slaughterhouses is "forbidden" and "constitutes a crime". In addition, due to the ever increasing demand, & # 39; temporary & # 39; slaughterhouses created and made available during the festival. According to information from the ministry, it is therefore "about sixty slaughterhouses of this type approved for the Eid el-Kebir festival". In addition, it must be known that the animal to be slaughtered must meet the conditions for "old age and physical integrity". The chosen animal must have "more than two years for livestock and less than six months for sheep".
About 180 slaughterhouses are mobilized throughout the country every year. Slaughterhouses subject to permanent checks by veterinary inspection services to ensure that all imposed standards (respect for the animal and the interests of the consumer) are respected. Here is a brief summary of the regulations for Eid el-Adha: animal keepers must be declared, animals must be identified to allow traceability of the food chain (for example, a sheep must have two loops: an electronic one in the left ear, and a conventional one) the right ear), it is mandatory to have a license to transport live animals, it is necessary to justify the conditions of accommodation of animals. Finally, impeccable hygiene must be respected in slaughterhouses. In France, list of approved slaughterhouses for the duration of Eid el-Kebir was published in the Official Journal on 11 August. Also note that the sacrificed animal is not necessarily a sheep. It can be a cow or even a goat, or even a camel. It all depends on the preference of the faithful, their wealth and the availability of livestock. The sheep usually correspond to a house (male, female and child (ren)) when the cow and the dromedary for the believers are assimilated to seven houses.
What are the traditions of Eid el-Adha?
Eid el-Kebir symbolizes a true moment of sharing and brotherhood among believers, the possibility of setting aside all family conflicts. And as far as Eid al-Fitr is concerned, the tradition of Eid al-Adha wants Muslims to wear their best clothes on this special day. Eid al-Kebir, the last month of the Muslim calendar, is the most important Islamic festival. Always according to tradition it is strongly recommended to multiply the alms and the gifts on the day of the Eid. Moreover, it would also be beneficial for believers to hold on to the day before Eid el-Kebir, namely the day of "Arafat" (the ninth day of the month dhu al-hijja) because, according to the prophetic tradition, the sins committed between the past year and that of the coming year would be waived. Indeed, it was during the day of Arafat that the last verse of the Qur'an was revealed from Mount Arafat in the province of Mecca in Saudi Arabia.
The first ritual performed on Eid al-Adha day is prayer. Indeed, Muslims are called to pray in the morning during the solemn prayer in mosques for the occasion. Each believer is then invited to go to the approved slaughterhouses to continue sacrificing the animal according to the rite. And as far as the organization of this special day is concerned, the rituals differ per country. In Jordan, for example, Eid el-Kebir is celebrated with the preparation of special cakes, while in Kuwait the party lasts a week. A week in which all sweets are forbidden. In Pakistan, the festivities of Eid al-Adha last a whole month and during which believers fast the first 10 days.
The "sacrificial feast" as it is called is synonymous with sharing. In many Islamic countries, the sacrificial animal is divided into "three-thirds": a third is consumed by the owner, a third is presented as a gift to family or friends, and the last third is distributed to the poor as alms. On this feast day it would be highly recommended to multiply gifts and alms.
The festivals of Eid al-Kebir and Eid el-Fitr share the same prayer, and only the moment they take place differentiates them. Indeed, the Eid el-Adha prayer is celebrated rather than that of Eid el-Fitr. Moreover, the greeting formula "Eid Mubarak" remains the same for these two holidays of the Muslim calendar.
In France, the date of Eid el-Kebir 2018 must match Tuesday 21 next August 2018, according to its programming by the astronomical calendar (for the "previous edition" it was Friday, September 1, just a few days before the school starts). A date indicated by the Great Mosque of Paris well before the performance, based on the astronomical calculation. And that does not satisfy all practicing Muslims of the hexagon. Some indeed criticize him to reduce the traditional observation of the crescent moon on the night of doubt / announcement.
It is on his Twitter account that the Mosque of Paris wanted to wish a good Eid party to all Muslims of France "On the occasion of the solemn festival Aid al-Adha, the mosque of Paris presents his best wish all Muslims on this happy day , to thank Allah for his benefits and mercy for us and the entire French nation, "reads on Twitter. Remember that it is the Mosque of Paris that announced in a statement that the feast day of Eid el-Kebir will be celebrated in France on Tuesday, August 21st. The solemn prayer of Eid al-Adha will take place at 9 o'clock in the Great Mosque of Paris.
The date of Eid al-Kebir may differ from country to country, as in Ramadan, but also from one practitioner to another. In question: the geography, the adopted policy, the referees in place, but also the way in which it was established. The most important feast of Islam, when Eid el-Kebir sees its date evolve in our Gregorian calendar, it occurs every year on the 10th of the month dhou al-hijja, the last month of the Muslim calendar, which is a lunar calendar. On Monday, August 21, 2017, for example, & # 39; 29th of the month dhou al qi & # 39; da & # 39 ;, the Supreme Court of Saudi Arabia has announced that the moon crescent moon that marks the beginning of the new lunar month of dhu al-hijja determines, had not seen in the air. That is why the 30 days of the month dhou were completed qi & # 39; da; the first of the month dhu al-hijja was held on Wednesday 23 September and Eid al-Adha (or Eid al-Kebir) was celebrated, again according to the observations of Saudi Arabia, the famous Friday 1 September.
The Eid el-Kebir celebration begins on the 10th of the month of Dhu al-Hijja, the last of the Islamic calendar. The festival lasts four days and the sacrifice must take place before sunset on the thirteenth day of the month. Uncertainty remains every year on the date of the beginning of Eid, related to the moon's perception. The months of the Muslim calendar indeed correspond to the phases of our satellite, each new month starting with the visual perception of a crescent moon at dusk.
Because of this, the date of Eid al-Kebir, like that of the beginning or the end of Ramadan, "disappears" about eleven days a year in the calendar. For proponents of the so-called "traditional" method, who are of the opinion that the beginning of the month can only be established after the "night of doubt", the date of Eid el-Kebir can only be determined exactly a few days earlier. in advance. But some Muslims believe that a calendar could be established earlier, through astrology.
The best known name is Eid el-Kebir ("the big party" in Arabic). The term is mainly used in the Maghreb. However, many countries, especially in the Middle East, use the name Eid al-Adha ("sacrifice feast"). The term Tabaski is used in West and Central Africa. Eid al-Kebir must be distinguished from Eid el-Fitr ("little feast"), which marks the breaking of Ramadan fast with a joint meal.
In the Islamic tradition, Eid el-Kebir commemorates the submission of Ibrahim to his God (Abraham in the Bible)which should serve as an example for all believers. According to the Quran, this prophet – corresponding to Abraham in the Bible – received in his dreams the divine commission to sacrifice his son Ishmael. He, brought up in the faith, accepts that he is sacrificed by his father. The devil intervenes and tries to convince the protagonists not to sacrifice, but Ibrahim throws seven stones at Satan. The father takes a knife and puts it on the throat of Ishmael. But he can not push it. If he finally manages to cut the neck, he thinks that the angel Jibril (Gabriel) had a sheep instead of his son and that he stands next to him unharmed.
For Muslims, the faith of Ibrahim, tested by God, was rewarded with the survival of his son. Eid al-Kebir remains a celebration that celebrates faith and grace. This episode of the Quran corresponds to a story in the Bible: that of Abraham's sacrifice of his son Isaak. This is interrupted by the arrival of an angel who announces to him that God is content with his faith. A ram is sacrificed instead of the young man.
Eid, mourned three years ago by a rush that killed more than 2,000 people in Mecca, is one of the most important celebrations of Islam, with Ramadan. The date is therefore the object of attention every year … In Islam Eid closes the pilgrimage for millions of believers, the period of pilgrimage that began two days earlier. Every year Muslims visit the holy places of their religion in Mecca, Saudi Arabia. Marking the end date of Hajj, it is one of the five pillars of Islam. Eid al-Kebir celebrates the completion of these pilgrimages and is a culmination of spiritual and social life.
Sheep, cows, goats … How can they make their sacrifice in dignified and hygienic conditions if the means are lacking, especially at the bottom, a shortage of approved slaughterhouses? This is the puzzle that many Muslims still face for Eid el-Kebir. The case of northern France is screaming. If there are four approved slaughterhouses on the regional territory, there is not one in the Lille metropolis. A problematic distribution experienced by other departments such as Gard. gold the slaughter of civil servants outside the built-up area is 100% forbidden in France and punishable by a fine of 15,000 euros and six months in prison. The list of slaughterhouses published in the Official Journal can be found here.
ZOOM – The slaughter of an animal, an obligation?
Eid al-Kebir is regarded by Muslims as a celebration of their faith. Many traditions accompany this period that covers three days. Muslims share prayers and meals. The most famous tradition of Eid el-Kebir is the sacrifice of an animal in memory of Ibrahim. This is usually a sheep, a goat or a calf. The animals must be at least one to two years old. Tradition directs the head of the family to kill the animal by emptying the bloodwithout knocking him out and using a sharp knife: the suffering of the animal must be kept to a minimum.
from many families choose to sacrifice a sheep in a specialized slaughterhouse or to order the meat from a slaughtered animal according to the ritual. It is then customary to divide the meat into three equal parts. The first belongs to the family, the second to neighbors, friends, colleagues and acquaintances, the third to the poor and the needy. The poorest do not have to practice this sacrifice.
The question of the replacement of this rite continues to divide the Muslims. For some Muslim leaders the sacrifice of the animal is a recommendation – with violence of family and cultural customs, a ritual that seems mandatory – but that can very well be replaced by a gift to the needy, if it corresponds its financial equivalent. Some believe that the message of Islam in this area is to feed the poor of the world.
Muslims around the world celebrate Eid el-Kebir but how are you doing in France? Practitioners are invited to mosques in the morning to pray. This phase of solemn prayers must start early, at 8:30 or 9:00. After that, the believers go to the slaughterhouse to continue to the ritual slaughter of the sheep. New for 2016: the funds collected on the occasion of the holiday Eid el-Kebir can be used again to help migrants. An initiative of the CFCM (French Council of Muslim Faith).
Eid el-Kebir marks the end of another essential tradition for believers: that of pilgrimage to the holy places of Meccaor Hajj. This ritual takes place between the 8th and the 13th of the month dhu al-hijja of the Islamic calendar. Hajj is one of the five pillars of Islam, with the profession of faith, daily prayers, alms and Ramadan.
Some rituals during pilgrimages to Mecca recall the episode of Ibrahim's sacrifice. So it is customary to go to Mina – a place near the holy city and presumed place where this prophet took his son – to throw stones on pillars. This act symbolizes faith and the rejection of the devil's temptation, such as Ibrahim in the Qur'an.
As an indication, here are the most probable dates for the start of Eid al-Kebir in the years to 2020, according to the calculations of the Institute for Hemechanics and calculus of ephemerides of the Observatoire de Paris:
|Calendar year||Year of the Muslim calendar||Start date of Eid el-Kebir|
|2019||1440||12 August 2019|
|2020||1441||July 31, 2020|
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