Joint prayer and holy proper circumstance in Budapest
OPH Image: Photo: MTI / Illyés Tibor
August 20, 2018
Participants are invited to join the St. Stephen's basilica in Budapest for prayer and music programs from 3.00 pm. Holy law is open from 9:00 pm to 1:00 pm and seats of the public sector are freely occupied from 2.30 pm. At 5 pm Péter Erdő Cardinal presents a festive sacrament, traditionally followed by the Holy Right Circumcision. The Bishop of Nagybecsker, Laszlo Német, says the sermon.
Holy Justice is virtually the most important Hungarian national and Catholic relic. Presumably mummified right hand of King St. Stephen's, which was found on August 20, 1083 in Székesfehérvár, when he opened the Holy Trinity of St. Stephen. The remains of the king of the king swam in "sultry water" according to the Catholic legend. King László I. found the remains of the time stolen on May 30, 1084 (that day was the Day of Commemoration of the Sacred Law). The sign of the right hand was a ring from King Stephen, who wrapped his hand. Archeology is preserved in the chapel of Saint Just in St. Stephen's Basilica in Budapest, and its respect is uninterrupted in Hungarian history. The traditional and organic part of the public ceremony of August 20 is the Holy proper circumcision, which attracts many people every year and gathers the Hungarians to the capital for a common prayer.
Escape from archeology
The death of István – although our first holy king had essentially laid the Hungarian rule of law and foundations of the state – was followed by a throne. The White House chapter was concerned that in an emergency the coronation corps in the marble sarcophagus in the middle of the Basilica of the Blessed Virgin Mary could be kidnapped and desecrated, thus stressing and hiding the body in the crypt under the church. At that moment the mummified right hand was taken away from him and taken to the treasury of the basilica. From here brought the guard of the treasury, a spiritual Mercury with him and hid him in his house. Later, when in 1083 King Stephen's trial commemorated the sacred in White Mountain, László I, who belonged to archeology, visited Mercury in the basement of Bihar, where archeology was preserved. He forgave him, and here he founded the Sacred Freedom Abbey for the preservation of archeology, which was named after the village of Szentjobb (nowadays in the Partium of Romania).
At the same time, the legend of Hartvik, perhaps our most reliable source, does not mention theft. According to the Bishop of the Chronicle, Saint Lawrence was lifted from the grave by Saint László in the process of sanctification, where he was restless for 45 years.
For centuries the believers were pilgrims to holy law. During the Turkish occupation, the relic was first escorted to Fehérvár and then moved to Bosnia, where Christian merchants bought expensive money and brought it around 1590 to the Dominican Ragusa monastery.
(The Ragusa Republic of Croatia was the seat of the current Croatian seaside resort of Dubrovnik, which lived in the 15th and 16th centuries when it was one of the largest cities in Europe with 40,000 inhabitants. In 1358 Louis I of Venice and until 1526 acquired ownership of the Hungarian crown.)
To the right of the holy right
In 1541 the Turks occupied Székesfehérvár and then the "free robbery" began. His relic was thus lost.
It is possible that the IV. King Béla brought him to Dalmatia and has been preserved there ever since. but according to a more accepted version, he was transferred to Bosnia during Turkish rule, and traders came to the Dalmatian seaport and trading town of Ragusa with other relics.
47 years later, in 1590, the Domonkos order in Ragusa bought a legal manuscript for which a silver relic was made, and in 1618 they invented the best from St. Stephen's. There is nothing to know about the identification conditions.
"In the history of the holy right this half century is vague, but in the 15th century During the 20th century, the coat of arms of Fehérvár was also discovered in Ragusa, and this collective appearance indirectly shows that in 1589 the citizens of the republic of the Republic and Hungarians were honored as the authentic right of St. István.
After lengthy diplomatic negotiations, Queen Mary Theresa bought the coffin in 1769 and the sacred law on 16 April 1771 from the order of Domonkos. The handkerchief was first transported to Vienna in Vienna and then ceremonially pumped to Buda this autumn. (The skull was first taken to Bratislava, then to Székesfehérvár, today it is in Esztergom.)
The Holocaust of Sacred Law was unknown in Hungary for two hundred years
Coincidentally, Hungarian chiefs discovered the Holy Right and warned the then ruler, Emperor Leopold I, and then Empress Maria Theresa, who had succeeded in retaking his remnant after long diplomatic negotiations. On 16 April 1771 he was placed in Schönbrunn and then in Buda, where he was charged with the custody of the Prince of the Zsigmond Chapel of the Buda Castle (the parish priest) and the head of the Anglo-Saxon branch. In memory of the recovery money was also carried. The Memorial Day for finding the Sacred Right is 30 May.
II. By order of Emperor Joseph, most of the Czech "red star soldiers" guarded archeology. From 1865, the main diocese of Esztergom, and since 1882, the parish priest of the royal palace of Buda appointed by the king. In 1862 the Hungarian Episcopal Faculty commissioned a new relay. The original can be seen in the basilica of Esztergom and is now preserved by the forts of St. Kőrösi.
The sacred right was again preserved between 1900 and 1944 in the Sigismund chapel. In 1938, in the holy year of the 900th anniversary of the death of St. Stephen, he was circumcised as a commemoration in the country, including in Székesfehérvár, where he received archeology amid great celebrations. The ceremony was opened on May 30, just after the Eucharistic World Congress.
During the Second World War, under the leadership of Colonel Ernő Pajtás, the Crown Keeper hid the sacred right along with the coronation badges in a cave in Salzburg. The insignia was later deposited in the US Army, which was handed over to the Archbishop of Salzburg. It was brought back to Hungary by the American military mission and it was circulated around the round of August 20, 1945. The Holy Law was preserved until 1950, until the order was dissolved, in the lord of the Anglo-Saxons of Budapest.
The circumcision was forbidden in the Rákosi era and the sacred right was hidden in the basement of the St. Stephen's cellar.
Lost and Found
We can encounter several contradictions in the vicissitudes of our holy relic. The first important event is finding the arm and, consequently, a possible explanation of natural mummification.
Finding the ashes of a king is also recorded by two chronicles. One of the bishops of Hartvik Gyor was born in 1116 and is regarded in the Middle Ages as a legitimate official of King Stephen, who mentions in the biography of the king that on August 20, 1083, when he was ordained at the opening of the sanctuary, the ground remains of the king & # 39; Sweaty & # 39; they were swimming in water. The high groundwater covered half of the box of stone slabs and it was swallowed, refilled with water. The broken ash of King Istvan was picked up in clean linen and placed in a silver box, but his famous ring with which he was buried was searched in the liquid. "The second story was written by the Chronicle Hungarorum of Pannónia, published in 1473 in the first printed Hungarian book:" The right of King István was stolen before the body was stolen, he was stolen and hidden in the estate of Bihari. "
"The coffin itself was slightly red in color with almost oil mixed with water, in the molten balm the expensive bones rested: they were collected in the purest wool and the ring, which was pulled to the right hand of the lucky man, was long sought after. In the liquid As this was not found, some began to command the water in silver bowls and barrels so that if they emptied the sarcophagus, they would find the ring firmer, but the more they smoke the more they smoked, the more they were replaced and how the coffin was loaded.When he saw the miracle, the soaked water was thrown into place, but the rest of the coffin did not get any better. & # 39;
– St Stephen & # 39; s legend of Hartvik Bishop
According to a further description of both chronicles, István's slave residency was taken back on May 30, 1084 by King László I. from the treasurer's treasury – Mercury – Berettyó estate (this day is the day of the holy right-hand recognition day). The best sign of identification was the king of Stephen, who had known this divorced hand.
Based on contemporary codex and engravings on King Stephen's funeral, the king was buried with his palm and his arms stretched out through his body. Konrad & # 39; s historian Szántó explains why the inside temperature of the "sarcophagus" in the middle of the basilica has changed so much in one of the very hot, long and dry summers that it quickly disappeared from the right arm that is most in contact stands with the warm air all moisture. Sudden dehydration resulted in contraction of the arm. The forearm arch of the elbows and the palm was fisted. & # 39;
According to György Györffy, "the preservation of the saint in the best sense can only be justified by the knowledge of the double burial." When the king István's cadaver in the sarcophagus and mummified in the time of national confusion was lifted under the floor of the to hide basilica, the separation of the right arm took place. & # 39;
Exciting questions about relic
Based on the 15th-century seals, the experts concluded that the original relic included the entire right arm by hand.
The separation of the upper arm and the return to Poland probably took place in 1370, during the reign of Lajos Nagy, when the Polish-Hungarian personal union was closed, to symbolically strengthen the union. The custody of the faculty in Lemberg (Lviv) is mentioned there by the Franciscan tradition. For the archaeologist in 1634 II. János Kázmér Polish king has made a valuable golden holder. "
For similar reasons King Sigismund gave the prince the lower part of the arm of the Hungarian-German personal union, founded in 1411, or the marriage of his daughter Elizabeth in 1421 with V. Habsburg Albert. The artifact is mentioned in the 1457 inventory of the St. Stephen's (first martyr with the name dome) in Vienna. Today he is guarded in the Imperial Treasury of the Hofburg (Schatzkammer) in Vienna.
This bone, embellished in a graceful relic, preserved in Vienna on the occasion of the Hungarian Millennium, was unveiled at the Christian Museum in Esztergom, October 1, 2000. In an interview with the exhibition Kinga Éry, an anthropologist, said: "Naturally I also found the erections in the temporary exhibition of the Christian Museum in Esztergom, and I was surprised that in the Viennese relic, written on the upper lip of the Holy King,. […] It is known that the skeleton of St. Stephen was raised from grave to his patron saint. They were lifted and erectiles made. We know more about this, and above all, the Holy Law. Neither this nor the other St. Stephen's relics can not question his religious credibility, but he would require a scientific study of whether or not to associate. In any case, there is no doubt about the authenticity of the skull in the St. Stephen's Basilica in Székesfehérvár. "
Where is the ring?
"There are very strong doubts about the credibility of the relic The bare hand in the fist was brought to the monks without any credentials, as mentioned above, by buying from Turkish traders. (According to some researchers, the then Egyptian mummies from the Turkish rule.) It is also a question how the artifacts referred to as full artifacts have consistently fallen to Mohács The most common argument against the authenticity of the relic is that it misses the remarkable ring that, according to the description of Hartvik , already in László & rt; age was identified.It can almost certainly be said that this hand has never been such a ring: fingers with fists exclude this possibility.There is no damage to them, which would indicate on the removal of the ring. "
"I had the opportunity to observe the sacred law in 1971. I was looking for the ring route, but it was only a miniature of the thumb that could be explained by pulling a ring, although they seldom wear a ring around their thumbs, we do not know which of King Stephen's wrists wore, and it is almost likely that sooner or later they would remove the ring that had become a remnant of the finger, perhaps in the time of King László. […] If the issue of authenticity of the relic arises, we can usually say that based on written data, "with a purely historical method", the identity of the relics can not be fully established, "wrote György Györffy historian.
Investigations of Sacred Law
The relics of the nation have been studied by three scholars.
"The issue of mummification was first written by Ádám Bochkor, who was commissioned to investigate the law in 1951. According to him, from the year 1038 until the time of relocation, 45 years had passed for the collapse of the corpse of King István, his better integrity is probably due to the fact that the hand was the highest body of the corpse in the back and mummified in the hot air. "
"In 1988, with the help of an anthropologist János Szentágothai anatomy professor and anthropologist János Nemeskéri using a twenty-five magnification preparatory microscope," the relic was re-examined.
In 1999, under the direction of Miklós Réthelyi, an X-ray and endoscopic study was conducted on St. Ignore, which after the study brought forward experts in "the idea of performing genetic tests". It was found that this study, which certainly leads to interesting results, only makes sense if the questions that are the only answer to the genetic investigations of the physical reality of the holy king are crystallized both in the church and in science. What we know about the right of our first crown ruler is in fact no more and no less: "a slightly smaller male than a moderate mummy in terms of circumstances".
That is certainly the hand of a man
The purpose of the tests was mainly to prevent the health check and further damage. You could look at the age of the relic, or that the arm and skull of a human being, but you should take an example. At the same time, it would be wise to do a DNA test – if after that time it would give an exact image – if it was a sample of Istria or direct descendant.
The tradition continues
The Holy Right Chapel was dedicated to Cardinal László Paskai, archbishop of Esztergom, in St. Stephen's basilica on 20 August 1987. The relic was placed here. St. Stephen's death on the 950th anniversary of his father's death, he came to the majority of archdiocese and bishopric sites (interesting not to Székesfehérvár) and Pannonhalma. Since 1989, August 20 has been re-organized.
In the context of the commemorative year 2013 in Szent István, Holy Right again visited the royal city, where after the Episcopal Palace to the Basilica of St. Stephen, Antal Spanyi celebrated the celebration of the Bishop of Székesfehérvár, a bishop of Székesfehérvar, in the basilica , before upright. After hundreds of years, in the area of the former royal basilica (medieval rudeness), the Holy See and the St. Stephen's Hermitage were centered in white on the shrine of Peter Peter Erdő, Esztergom-Budapest Archbishop and Antal Spányi , Bishop of Székesfehérvár.
The ceremony is an indispensable part of our national identity, heritage, Christianity and now stands for more than 1000 years.