Lunar hydropolitics can be defined as exoterrestrial politics by state parties or countries and private / business entities of our planet with regard to legal, technical, economic aspects of exploiting hydrolayer of moon regolith and possible sublunar hydroresources.
We see the dawn of moon hydropolitics with these latest reports from Li, S, et al. "Direct detections of water ice exposed in the Lunar polar regions." LPI contributions 2087 (2018) in which contributions from India & # 39; s Moon Minerology Mapper (M3) are mentioned on Chandrayaan-1 mission, but surprisingly no Indian author. Li and his team used indirect lighting in areas with permanent shadow to report the detection of near-infrared water absorption characteristics of water ice in reflectance spectra obtained by the Moon Mineralogy Mapper M3 instrument.
They identified several thousand M3 pixels (about 280 by 280 m) with signatures of water ice on the optical surface (depth of less than a few millimeters) within the 20 degree width of both poles, including locations where independent measurements have suggested that water ice may be present . They found that "most of the ice locations detected in M3 data also show reflection values of the lunar orbiter laser and Lyman Alpha Mapping Project instrument values for UV values consistent with the presence of water ice and also show annual maximum temperatures below 110 K. " Within three weeks of publication of this article, the world started to discuss the political implications of the finding.
To get an idea of what it means to detect water on the moon, this article should be read with Pieters CM, et al. (2009) Character and spatial distribution of OH / H2O on the surface of the Moon seen by M3 on Chandrayaan-1. Science 326: 568-572 and Li S, Milliken RE (2017) Water on the surface of the moon as seen by the Moon Mineralogy Mapper: distribution, abundance and origin. Sci Adv 3: e1701471. If the space contract 1967 is violated, then the next wars in space and possibly on the moon could be fought for its means. The competition for the moon is warming up.
NASA is racing ahead with nanosatellites Lunar Flashlight and Lunar Icecube in 2020 to investigate water ice deposits. China has planned Chang & # 39; e 4 and 5 missions in 2018 and 19. India & # 39; s deferred Chanrayaan-2 mission can be launched in January 2019. German Alina and the American Lunar Scout would explore Moon in 2019. No less than 18 unmanned missions are planned until 2021 by the US, Russia, Japan and China. Even a small country like Israel is ambitious about the moon. On February 13, 2019, Israels' Sparrow & # 39; mission would unleash the Israeli national flag and measure local magnetism. Crawford, Ian A in his "Lunar resources: A review."
Advances in physical geography 39.2 (2015): 137-167 warned that "the development of lunar (and other extraterrestrial) sources requires the establishment of an international legal regime that encourages large-scale investment in prospecting and extraction activities, while at the same time that space does not become a possible flash point for international conflicts ". It is amazing to discover how ancient civilizations have identified moon with water. Jules Cashford in his The Moon, Myth and Image (2003) has devoted a full chapter to describing how ancient Sumerians, Greeks, Egyptians, Indians and even the Bushmen of Africa, indigenous people in Brazil and British Columbia Moon associated with water.
I have the most important research papers and books about Moon (Bhandari, 2006, Exploration and utilization of the Moon, Chandralok, 2008 by Mohan Apte in Marathi) in my collection and reason to obtain these were my prediction about different countries that fight for the struggle. riches of the Moon – mainly rare earth elements, Helium three and now water. These references show that the Clementine mission study group estimated water near the moon south pole in an area of 15500 square kilometers with a weight of 100 to 1000 million MT. Lunar prospector study group had estimated at 10 to 300 million tons of water near both the moon sticks. Jim Arnold of California University was optimistic about 11 to 110 billion MT of water at a depth of two meters in the vicinity of both lunar masts.
Louis Friedman of Planetary Society estimated 0.3 to 1 percent of water in lunar regolith. In March 2010, it was claimed that Mini-SAR aboard Chandrayaan-1 had discovered more than 40 permanently obscured craters at the North Pole of the Moon with a speculative estimate of 600 million tons of water. In January 2018 Paul Spudis reached a quantity of 100 million to 1 billion MT at each pool.
Those who planted manned colonies on Moon calculated that without recycling 330 million tons of water would be needed to sustain 2000 people for a century. Article I of the UN Convention of January 1967 on principles governing the activities of states in the investigation and use of outer space, including the moon and other celestial bodies, says: "the exploration and use of space, including the moon and other celestial bodies, will be carried out for the benefit and in the interests of all countries, regardless of their degree of economic or scientific development, and will be the province of all mankind "and Article IV says:" The moon and other celestial bodies will all States are used Parties to the treaty are for peaceful purposes only. "However, this 51-year treaty may require some changes in the future to control the moon's hydropolitics. Countries like India must take the lead.