To understand earthquakes, types, causes and consequences of earthquakes



Understanding earthquakes – Earthquakes are vibrations in the ground caused by movement of the earth's surface. The movement resulted in damage to buildings, bridges, residential roads to changes in the land surface, even with regard to the loss of human lives.

The surface of the earth has the shape of the layer that is the outermost rock, the keak bumi. The crust has a form of nickel and also iron with solid pieces in the middle. The thickness of the earth's crust can reach 70 km.

Earthquakes of the earth's crust generally occur, which are not far from the ground. The crust is then broken and forms a large piece of the most paired. This piece is called a sign. The collision between the two plates causes one of the earth's crust plates to be pushed down.

In general, the oceanic plate in the maritime mass is thinner continental plates on the land. The falling oceanic plate then rubs against the plate above which an earthquake and tsunami can cause.

While in other cases, when the plate then forms a crust that moves and displaces each other, it will result in a great tension, even capable of breaking up rocks. The site with broken rocks is called an error (wrong). and the groove of the end of the rock fragments is called the fracture groove.

Broken defects with large impacts are able to reach deep underground rocks that extend along continents. The fault lines in the world are the same as for example the strongest earthquakes and can also be found on friendly edge plates. Some of the big mistakes then spread the ground as they move, the energy released, the rocks on both sides of the break are locked into one in a new position.

The pressure and stress that result in the first earthquake often return and increase to a new earthquake. Every year, earthquakes with a small size of 11 million times are registered and the earthquake has a major impact on 34,000 times.

Understanding of earthquakes according to experts

1. Howel

Meurut Howel in Mulyo (2004) who defines that the definition of an earthquake is vibration or a series of vibrations of the skin of the earth that are not eternal and then spread in all directions. The skin of the earth vibrates continuously, although it is relatively small. The vibration is not said to be an earthquake, because it has vibrational properties. An earthquake must therefore have a clear start time and closing time.

2. Bayong

According to Bayong (2006: 12) earthquakes are movements or vibrations in the skin of the earth caused by endogenous energy. Endogenous energy is energy coming from within the earth caused by changes in the skin of the earth. Endogenous power has properties that form the surface of the earth and become unequal. It may be that somewhere in front of the surface of the earth it was flat (flat) but the end of this endogenous energy changed into mountains, hills or mountains. On other pieces the earth's surface goes down to make a forum or ravine. In general, endogenous power is divided into three types, namely volcanism, tectonism and seismic or earthquakes. Volcanism is divided into plutonism and volcanism.

Properties of earthquakes

In addition, earthquakes also have properties. The characteristics of an earthquake are as follows …

  • Global. Geographically, the distribution is structured with earthquakes or major earthquakes.
  • Release energy that is also very large. The release of energy can occur both on the plains and in the ocean, the release of energy that occurs in the ocean can cause tsunamis.
  • Come in groups with both time and space.
  • The focal depth of the earthquake varies to 700 km.
  • The earthquake frequency distribution is a function of the deep focus, but not uniform for depth and geology.

Types of earthquakes

Earthquakes generally create moving land. If there is an earthquake center that is friendly to settlements, there will be a construction damage in the area. Conversely, if the center of the quarter is far from a settlement, then the effect is only in the form of small vibrations, sometimes no vibration is felt at all.

The presence of vertical or horizontal vibrations of earthquakes and the extent of the impact on damage to buildings is influenced more by, for example, a soil condition itself.

  • Thin layer of soil.
  • Hard or soft soil layer,
  • Properties of soil and soil geological conditions (geological environment).
For example, there are three conditions or properties of soil, it can be concluded that a process of spreading an earthquake is a very complex event. Soil can increase or decrease the movement of earthquake waves. The soil conditions below also choose the level of damage, not only from the registered scale of Richter.

When the surface is very hard, it can be predicted that an earthquake with a magnitude of 5.9 on the Richter scale can cause great damage because the ground is hard, will be able to continue and even the vibration of a earthquake increase. For example, the earthquake in Yogyakarta and in the country of Central Jawah.

Namuin, when the mowed soil is soft, the earthquake can not cause any damage. After the earthquake in Yogyakarta, a few months later, for example, Jakarta was startled by an earthquake with a magnitude of 6.2 on the Richter scale, but there was no damage. There is only panic, it is then spread by some tremors that are absorbed by the soft ground.

Apart from the nature of the soil, the earthquake radius of the epicenter contributes to increasing or decreasing vibrations. The closer it is to an epic center, the more difficult the vibration will be. Aside from moving horizontally, an earthquake can move up and down. This was possible in an earthquake in the city of Kobe, Japan, January 17, 1995.

The earthquake known by advanced students has two types, namely tectonic earthquakes and volcanic earthquakes.

1. Tectonic earthquake

Definition of Tectonic earthquakes – Definition of Tectonic earthquakes are earthquakes caused by the sudden shift of the earth's crust in the earth and are related to the signs of mountain formation. It remains in the skin of the earth, what is called a geological process that has the end of concentration and the confinement of tensions and tensions that can cause changes in the formation of mountains in geological time.

As the state increases, it is able to surpass the forces on the boundary of the earth's crust, there is a shift along the weakest field called the fracture plate (wrong) or shifting rocks to find a new balance. The tectonic earthquake has large earthquake waves that occur repeatedly and can not be predicted to occur.


Characteristics of Tectonic earthquakes

  • Tectonic earthquakes are also known as dislocation earthquakes
  • Tectonic earthquakes occur when arrays occur or when a shift occurs along the fracture due to tension in the earth's crust.
  • Based on existing recordings, 90 percent of all earthquakes are categorized as tectonic earthquakes.
  • The spread of the earthquake was very broad, with medium to high force, at the beginning with a weak movement and then a large earthquake with a sufficiently large scale, followed by aftershocks with intense energy that became smaller in the battle for a balance reach.
  • The generated newspapers have a form of damage and also human sacrifices.

2. Volcanic earthquake

Definition of volcanic earthquakes – Definition Volcanic earthquakes are earthquakes caused by volcanic performance and occur for as long as, during and after volcanic eruptions. When a volcano erupts, the resulting eruption absorbs waves picked up by the sesymograph. But if the caused eruption is very large, the movement can be felt immediately.

The volcanic earthquake has local characteristics with weak vibrations. This is caused by most of the energy that is then released in the form of an explosive sound. Generally, the earthquake causes damage to an earthquake.

Volcanic earthquakes can occur when they are repeated during the day or even in a few hours. The intensity of the wave vibrations is not great, so the building can not cause serious damage. Volcanic waves of earthquakes that can still be predicted will occur.

Characteristics of volcanic earthquakes

  • Volcanic earthquakes occur because of the performance of the volcano.
  • Occurs before, during and after a volcanic eruption
  • Because the uitama volcanic earthquake touches the magma with the body wall of the volcano and the gas pressure on a great blast
  • Sudden movement of magma in the magma chamber
  • Based on recordings of earthquake events, about 7 percent is classified in volcanic earthquakes.

There are also opinions that there are 4 types of earthquakes or earthquakes, namely as follows:

3. Collapse Earthquake

Earthquakes caused by earthquakes are unique or catastrophic, so this type of earthquake usually occurs in a friendly place with pertambnagna or calcareous mountains. This type of earthquake is a rare aid and the resulting threat or impact of the earthquake is relatively small compared to tectonic and volcanic earthquakes.

4. Artificial earthquakes

In general, earthquakes at sea are not earthquakes that fall into the category of natural tragedies, but also a disaster category with a very large end. The cause of this earthquake comes from excessive human events such as bombs, dynamite rays, nuclear etc. until the surrounding surface of the earth is shaken.

Often the species or types of earthquakes are divided in two, namely the earthquake on the mainland and also the earthquake in the ocean. The distribution of earthquakes or earthquakes according to the focal distance, namely:

  • Local earthquake with an epicenter distance of <10,000 km
  • The earthquake is much more or less the distance of the epicenter of 10,000 km
  • The earthquake is far from the epicenter> 10,000 km
Not only that, there are also types of earthquakes according to the focal length, namely as follows:

  • Shallow earthquake with a focal depth of about 50 km
  • Intermediate earthquake with a focal length of 100 – 300 km
  • Deep earthquake with a focal length of 300-700 km

Causes of earthquakes

The cause or origin of an earthquake is the result of natural phenomena and also the actions of people that can be caused by:

  • As a result of the falling meteor
  • Volcanic activity
  • Explosion that lands nuclear end.

The most dangerous earthquake is the last liberation of the earthquake of energy as a result of the construction of a high voltage on the earth's crust. The mechanism is based on the inside of the earth, so that the gmepa of the earth is not yet fully understood, and so many theories suggest with regard to the procedure that tends to cause a conflict. For this purpose it has now been sufficiently addressed, because the main cause of an earthquake is related to the tectonic processes of the oceans and also to the surface of the earth.

The process of earthquakes

The competent opinion that exists because of the rise of an earthquake

  • The collapse of the inner holes of the earth. For example, caves or rock mines or minerals in the earth that cause vibrations above the surface, but these vibrations are not too large and only occur locally or are present locally.
  • Collision (Impack). Collisions of celestial bodies or often called meteors that cause vibrations, only the vibration is not recorded by an earthquake vibration recording device and is also very rare.
  • Volcanic eruption or explosion. Volcanic activity is capable of generating earthquakes called volcanic volcanoes. The reason is the contact between the magma and the volcano wall and also the gas pressure that erupts strongly, or there is a sudden transfer of magna from the magma chamber.
  • Tectonic activities. Earthquakes with a large impact from tectonic activities. Earthquakes connected with tectonic force activities take place in the mountains, there are errors and traits or pressures of the movement of the plates that form the earth's crust.

Consequences of the earthquake

As for those caused by earthquakes, it is not a silent problem in an earthquake. Indonesia, which is often struck by such a phenomenon, is not a bit of a budget and a lot of end or impact has been received by Indonesia at the end of the earthquake process. As a result of the earthquake or the impact of the earthquake, it is divided into two types of earthquake influences, namely as follows:

Physical impact:

  • Many buildings were destroyed or collapsed.
  • End of shock-shaking ground.
  • Loss of life.
  • the surface of the soil becomes sticky, splits and the road breaks.
  • Flooding due to damage to the dike.
  • The basic maritime earthquake was able to cause a tsunami.
  • And so on.

Social impact:

  • Create poverty.
  • Hungry.
  • Cause illness.
  • If it is on a large scale (able to cause a major tsunami), it can paralyze politics, the economic system and other.
  • And so on.

Ways to overcome the impact of earthquakes
Several earthquake phenomena taking place in the country of Indonesia are a source of experience in learning things to be considered in an earthquake. There are a number of tips and tricks to overcome the effects of earthquakes that hopefully save ourselves, family and friends. The way to deal with the consequences of the earthquake is as follows …

For the occurrence of an earthquake

  • Know what an earthquake says
  • Make sure that the structure and location of your home can prevent threats from earthquakes (landslides, liquefaction, etc.).
  • Evaluating and renovating the structure of your building, hopefully avoiding the threat of an earthquake
  • Identify the environment in which you work and live.
  • Note the location of doors, elevators and emergency stairs when an earthquake occurs, which is the most suitable place for shelter.
  • Learn to implement first aid
  • Learn to use a fire extinguisher.
  • Register important telephone numbers during an earthquake
  • Regular preparation for where you live and work
  • Storing material that can easily be burned in a place that is not easily broken can hopefully be protected from fire.
  • Ensure that water, gas and electricity are not used.
  • The biggest cause is to set heavy objects at the bottom, check the stability of the object when it falls
  • Prepare a first aid kit, flashlight, radio and additional food and water.
  • Making earthquake-resistant buildings
  • Do not panic
  • Observe the signs of the earthquake

When an earthquake occurs

  • Protect the head and body against the ruins of the building
  • Looking for the safest place
  • Run away if you can.
  • When buildings outside buildings, electric poles and trees etc. Avoid paying attention to where you are and avoid cracks.
  • If you are driving a car, get out, down and away from the car. Then pay attention to the balance. Avoid being on friendly beaches. Avoid mountainous places that can cause landslides.

After the earthquake

  • If you are in the building, you must close immediately Do not use a lift. Check for someone who is injured. Call or ask for help. Check the environment, fire, gas leaks, short circuits, fatwa and water pipes.

This is information about the earthquake. Hopefully this information can bear fruit and increase our knowledge, and we can apply it to save ourselves, our family and friends, hopefully we can live better and avoid this earthquake, because not only are we affected, but the whole country exists only or exists in a certain place.

References:

Sukandarrumidi. 2010. Natural disasters and anthropogenic disasters: simple instructions for saving, Yogyakarta: Kanisius. Page: 43-48.
Mistra. 2006. Construction of earthquake-resistant houses. Jakarta: Griya Kreasi. pp.: 7-16.

Gobekasi: Earthquakes: Understanding earthquakes, species, causes and effects of earthquakes

Gobekasi: Earthquakes: Understanding earthquakes, species, causes and effects of earthquakes

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Article title: Gobekasi: Earthquakes: Understanding earthquakes, species, causes and effects of earthquakes

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Gobekasi: Earthquakes: Understanding earthquakes, species, causes and effects of earthquakes

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