Complications of diabetes – that can poison a person's life with disruptions in the endocrine system even more. It is not enough to check the blood sugar level and adjust your diet and exercise to lead a full life. It is also necessary to take care of your health, because diabetes starts with blood vessel problems, someone is more susceptible to allergies, etc. What dangerous complications of diabetes are, what you need to know about them and how to deal with them, AiF. ru told Endocrinologist Elena Syurakshina, PhD, Doctor in the highest category.
Complications of diabetes pose a serious threat to the life and health of the patient. All problems appear due to unstable blood sugar levels. Increased glucose contributes to changes in blood properties, violates brain functions, the cardiovascular system, affects the kidneys and nerve cells. The catalyst for complications is often stress, as well as infections, viruses that can inhibit immunity. Against this background, both one and more complications can appear immediately. And it is worth studying in advance, so as not to panic, but to deal competently or to offer good prevention.
Decompensation of diabetes mellitus (a violation of the biological balance in the body against the background of diabetes, when the organs have to work for two people) This often leads to ketoacidosis. This is an acute breakdown of metabolic regulation mechanisms in diabetic patients, characterized by an increase in the level of glucose and ketone bodies. Accompanied by thirst, increased urination, dry skin, the smell of acetone from the mouth, abdominal pain, headache, lethargy, irritability, drowsiness, lethargy. The basis of the treatment is insulin therapy, rehydration measures and correction of pathological changes in the electrolyte metabolism. In this condition it is necessary to consult a doctor and do this as soon as possible, because ketoacidosis can be deadly without proper treatment.
Hypoglycemia is a condition that is caused by very low blood sugar. It is often associated with the treatment of diabetes itself. This pathology is characterized by general malaise, fatigue, pale skin, shakiness, anxiety, increased sweating, crying during sleep. The treatment must be carried out as quickly as possible in order to restore blood sugar levels to normal and the use of high-sugar foods and beverages. And here it is important to prevent the development of such a state. Therefore, contact your doctor for correction of the situation and the selection of prevention. A sharp decrease in sugar can lead to hypoglycemic coma and death as a result.
In human diabetes, various coma variants can occur in the background of blood glucose jumps. The situation is extremely dangerous and unpleasant. Without timely help, the matter could end in death.
Hyperosmolar non-ketone coma is an acute complication of diabetes mellitus, characterized by disturbed glucose metabolism and an increase in blood level, a strong increase in plasma osmolarity (this is the sum of all blood components dissolved in it, ed.), Pronounced dehydration in the cells, lack of ketoacidosis. The most important symptoms are an increase in the number and urination, body dehydration, muscle hypertonia, convulsions, increasing sleepiness, incoherent speech. Treatment includes rehydration, restoration of normal insulin levels, elimination and prevention of complications. There should be no self-treatment in this situation.
Lacticidemic coma is a condition characterized by a low glycemia level, a decrease in the alkaline blood reserve, a pH and an increase in the lactic acid level. The cause of development can be chronic hypoxia, severe dehydration of the body with hyperosmolar diabetic coma. It will indicate the following symptoms: increasing weakness, pain in the muscles and heart, which are expressed very clearly. If such signs appear, you should immediately seek specialized help from doctors. In such a situation hospitalization is required, otherwise paralysis of the respiratory center and death may occur.
High blood sugar levels increase the risk of eye diseases. This is due to damage to the small blood vessels and is called microangiopathy. Diabetic retinopathy is a complication of a vascular nature in diabetes mellitus. This pathology leads to irreversible blindness. It is clear that in this situation it is better to prevent than to try to stop the disease. For prophylaxis, therefore, it is necessary to constantly and responsibly monitor blood sugar levels, including cholesterol levels, so that blood vessels no longer collapse, and it is worth monitoring blood pressure.
Diabetes foot syndrome – damage to the skin, large and small vessels, nerves, bones and muscles of the foot. The cause is the toxic effect of high blood sugar levels on large and small blood vessels, nervous, musculoskeletal tissue. First of all, it manifests itself through pain in the lower limbs, numbness, burning, cooling of the feet and parasthesia (goose bumps, tingling). Deep tissue damage that results from a deterioration in blood flow usually resembles poorly healing sores, infectious lesions, and gangrene. Patients with diabetes should not self-medicate if there are problems such as ingrown nails, darkening of the nail, fungal lesions of the nail plates, calluses and corns, skin cuts when cutting nails, burrs, cracks on the heels. For the correction, contact the specialists, for example podiatrists, who carry out the necessary manipulations with regard to the main diagnosis. The basis for the prevention of diabetic foot is the treatment of diabetes mellitus as the main disease.
People with diabetes usually experience multiple and diverse skin lesions, most of which are bacterial and fungal infections. Too much sugar in the blood and sweat creates good conditions for the development of microorganisms and also weakens the protective processes of the body. Dry skin, circulatory disorders in the skin and itching are of great importance. Infection occurs with non-compensated diabetes. As a result, wounds, cracks and non-healing sores appear more often on the skin. Those who are diagnosed with & # 39; diabetes & # 39; need special personal hygiene: regular showers, the use of skin protection, etc.