BRATISLAVA, November 13, 2018 (WBN / PR) – Children, adults, pregnant women, travelers, people with increased risk of infection and professionals who are confronted with infectious diseases – they all need vaccination to protect their health and life. If the protection of the population by vaccination fails, there are epidemics – just like the recent mosquito epidemic in eastern Slovakia in May 2018. It is a proof that the fall in vaccination would pose serious and ill-considered threats to public health, unnecessary illness and death. cause.
At the beginning of the 20th century, the greatest threats to health were infectious and parasitic diseases, which usually required the lives of infants and children. Since the introduction of vaccination, life expectancy has increased by 15 to 25 years. A further extension of life is expected and there are indications that it has contributed significantly to the treatment of the disease due to vaccination. Vaccination today can prevent more infectious diseases and on the horizon there are new vaccines with the potential to prevent other infectious diseases. Bulk vaccination programs have been successful in controlling or even eliminating the disease. History shows that reducing the coverage of vaccines paves the way for a recurrence of the disease in a population that is already protected. With stable and high inoculum coverage, the disease disappears and some may have completely died out. Despite the undisputed success of vaccination efforts, 1.5 million people die each year from diseases that can be prevented by vaccination. According to WHO, vaccines will be the main tool to reduce the high morbidity and mortality that is permanently associated with influenza pandemics. Approximately 3.5 million people are infected with influenza each year, resulting in 650,000 deaths. In 1990, infectious diseases accounted for 33% of all deaths, in 2010 this was only 25%.
In addition to being able to prevent death and suffering, vaccines are one of the most cost-effective health investments available. Vaccination has greatly reduced the economic burden on the company with infectious diseases. In addition to protecting lives and reducing disability, vaccination can also reduce pressure on health systems, thanks to less frequent visits to doctors and hospitalizations; and also reduce downtime and costs of loss productivity caused by various diseases. Vaccination can help prevent communicable infectious diseases. It prevents them from being transferred between people and expanding in the population. Some people can not be protected by vaccination. For example, children who are too small to be vaccinated, people with a weakened immune system who are incompatible with all conditions after receiving the vaccine and those who are too ill to receive the vaccine (for example patients with cancer). Vaccination can also & # 39; collective protection & # 39; provide for people who can not be vaccinated. The main component of vaccines are antigens, the active ingredient of vaccines. Stimulates / stimulates the immune system to create immunity. Adjuvants are similar in function. They promote the stimulation of the immune system. Together they form the active ingredient of the vaccine. Vaccines can also contain very small amounts of other substances that do not stimulate the immune system and are therefore inactive. They are of minor importance and include, in particular, antibiotics, preservatives and stabilizers. The antigen is administered to the organism in a vaccine (vaccine) in various forms, such as live attenuated virus particles, killed virus particles or only parts of viruses, surface – bacterial antigens, or antigens found in bacteria.
Mandatory and optional vaccination is available in Slovakia. Required to be vaccinated against ten diseases, optional against a further 13 diseases, of which four are vaccines. Vaccination of children against diphtheria, tetanus, blackheads, polio, hepatitis B virus and haemophilic invasive diseases is mandatory with regular mandatory vaccinations, as well as vaccination against measles, rheumatism and rubella. As part of regular mandatory vaccinations, adults must be vaccinated against diphtheria and tetanus.
The vaccination schedule was developed by experts on the basis of professional knowledge, years of experience, cases in the SR and neighboring countries, recommendations from the ECDC – the European Center for Disease Control and Prevention and WHO – World Health Organization. The most successful preventive program in Slovakia is National vaccination program. The aim is to protect public health by reducing disease, eliminating and eliminating communicable diseases and ensuring effective and safe immunization of children and adults.
Every drop in vaccination reduces the effect of collective protection, which means that the risk of epidemics increases and the most vulnerable are threatened. It does not matter that you do not have to vaccinate against diseases that do not occur! Collective protection is also important for national security. The free movement of people in the EU and increased migration affect the health and safety of Slovaks. Vaccine vaccination against measles in Slovakia decreased in four regions below 95%: Bratislava, Trenčiansky, Banskobystrický and Košický. One of the unpleasant consequences was the epidemic of measles in eastern Slovakia when it hit 428 people!
If an parent does not refuse compulsory child vaccinations without showing serious medical or other doctors, he will be fined 331 euros in total. However, mandatory vaccination does not impose fines for refusal, but for the prevention of communicable diseases that can be prevented by vaccination. Mandatory vaccination is available for all children in Slovakia and is covered by public health insurance. Due to strict compliance with the vaccination requirement, Slovakia has so far achieved a high vaccination coverage and thus protects the population against diseases that are subject to mandatory vaccinations.
An important period in which vaccination is needed is pregnancy. Female immunity and the functioning of her body undergo a number of changes during pregnancy, which facilitate the development of infectious diseases. Before pregnancy, a woman must have all mandatory vaccinations to protect her and her baby. Live vaccines should be given at least one month before the planned pregnancy. The biggest interest is vaccination against sheep's puppies if their wife does not survive. Non-live vaccines can also be given just before pregnancy and, if necessary, during pregnancy. Every pregnant woman must be vaccinated against influenza every year from October to December and must be vaccinated against diphtheria, tetanus and black cough (dTap) on the 28th to 37th week of pregnancy. During pregnancy, flu can cause serious complications for the mother and the fetus, including death. In 2009, 6 pregnant women died of a pandemic influenza in SARI in Slovakia, which was up to 46.15% of the cases! Direct transmission of mother to child flu during pregnancy is rare, but is the cause of miscarriage in the first trimester. The influenza virus causes the neural tube. Maternal influenza is associated with a fourfold increase in fetal neoplasia – fetal tumors when their absolute numbers are low. Children of mothers with over-infected flu are left behind during their childhood. Postpartum vaccination is also important for mother and child. A vaccinated mother reduces the risk of infecting her baby. Getting pregnant immediately after birth is safe for the mother, even if she is breastfeeding. A woman who has not been vaccinated against tetanus, diphtheria and black cough during pregnancy must be vaccinated immediately after birth if she has not been vaccinated in the past five years.
Groups of persons who have or have had an increased risk of infection are, in selected cases, obliged to vaccinate in Slovakia in accordance with the Decree of the Ministry of Health of the Slovak Republic 585 of 10.12. 2008 laying down details on the prevention and control of communicable diseases. These are, for example, people who have come into contact with the disease due to tuberculosis, meningitis or viral hepatitis A. Compulsory vaccines are also people living in a communal household with a person suffering from hepatitis B and against rabies that are required to vaccinate who have been in contact with animal beasts. Anti-pneumococcal infections are mandatory for people to be placed in social services homes.
There are also professions where certain vaccinations are mandatory. Vaccines against tuberculosis, for example, are some doctors, laboratory technicians or asylum workers. Epidemiologists, soldiers, members of the prison and the Judicial Guard Corps, firefighters and others have been vaccinated against hepatitis A. In the case of hepatitis B, teachers are waiting for health schools, employees of social services, employment offices, social affairs and families, municipalities, social and legal protection facilities for children and welfare workers for the hepatitis B vaccine. Vaccination against rabies is compulsory for employees of virological laboratories dealing with rabies virus, workers of remedial establishments who are at a direct risk of infection; and sharks. Vaccination against tick-borne inflammations is mandatory for staff of virological laboratories working with the germ-like inflammatory virus. Other vaccines are recommended for other groups of people and professionals.
Slovakia has made commitments to the European Center for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC), which is the development of the immunization program and its financial sustainability. Vaccination is part of the European antibiotic resistance program. The state has a responsibility for citizens, especially for the health of children, the elderly and marginalized groups. It is our duty to also protect our health in this way!