Is a "Phantom Universe" hidden in the background of the cosmic microwave? Three physicists think that there is

Posted on August 26, 2018

There is a term in the art world Pentimento, that is, a change, an overlay on a painting, a hiding that is evident from traces of an earlier work. Likewise, the British physicist and former Stephen Hawking colleague, Sir Roger Penrose and his team, claim that extinct universes exist filled with ghost black holes that are hidden, embedded in the Cosmic Microwave Background Chart.

Unexpected hotspots in the cosmic microwave background (CMB), reported Physics World, could have been produced by black holes that evaporate before the Big Bang. That is what three scientists under the direction of mathematical physicist Roger Penrose say in a paper with new evidence that our universe is only one stage in a potentially infinite cycle of cosmic extinction and rebirth. However, other researchers remain skeptical about the fact that the background in the microwave does indeed contain signs of a previous "aeon".

According to standard cosmology, the universe underwent a very short but exceptionally intense expansion just after the big bang. This period of "inflation" would have smoothed out any irregularities in the structure of the early universe, which led to the very uniform cosmos that we perceive around us.

But, continues the Physics World report, Penrose, based at the University of Oxford, has developed a rival theory known as "conformal cyclic cosmology" (CCC), which states that the universe became uniform before, rather than after, the big Bang. The idea is that the universe moves from one aeon to the next, starting with infinitely small and ultra-smooth for expanding and generating mass & matter. That matter is eventually sucked up by super heavy black holes, which disappear in the very long term by continuously transmitting Hawking radiation. This process restores uniformity and paves the way for the next Big Bang.

Penrose and two colleagues – Daniel An from the SUNY Maritime College in the US and Krzysztof Meissner from the University of Warsaw in Poland – report CMB data from the Planck satellite of the European Space Agency for hot spots of various sizes and analyze how fast the microwave temperature is decreasing around them compared to spots in 1000 simulated maps of the CMB. They discovered that in and around small spots no simulated map had higher temperature gradients than the real cosmos – with temperature variations in the latter case being about an order of magnitude higher than the CMB average.

All black holes theoretically disintegrate and leave a universe of gravitons and photons that do not experience space and time as we know them, because they have no mass and travel at the speed of light. Penrose describes a universe without black holes that will reflect the extreme compression of our universe when the Big Bang exploded. There are no things like distance or time at that moment, but there is something that even this violent outburst can not erase.

"It is not the singularity of the black hole but the … whole Hawking radiation from the hole in the course of its history," Penrose told Live Science. For each positive graviton or photon that is released into space from the surface of the event horizon of a black hole, a negative particle (meaning negative mass and energy) falls back to the point of no return beyond the event horizon. Negative particles eliminate mass and energy that have previously been devoured by that black hole.

This phenomenon of positive particles coming from a black hole and being replaced by negative particles, and slowly eating away from the cosmic monster, is Hawking Radiation. Hawking radiation reduces the mass and energy of black holes and is also called black-hole evaporation. Black holes that do not get mass in other ways are expected to shrink and eventually disappear.

What Penrose and his team noted in the CMB data were not factual remains of the black holes that supposedly disappeared billions and billions of years ago, but evidence of their existence and the previous life of the universe. Eons of wasting away from Hawking radiation leave a mark on cosmic background frequencies. What it left behind has long gone, but its real existence can be traced.

Although trying to detect these prints in the opaque CMB radiation, excluded possible false positives and was clearly much more accurate than just confirming the existence of an Earth fossil, the conclusion was ultimately the spectrum of Hawking radiation that was left behind by the extinct black holes of a previous universe.

The Daily Galaxy through Physics World and Live Science

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