The amazing discovery was made by international researchers at the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics and Durham University in the United Kingdom.
The astronomers praised the unprecedented discovery as "enormously exciting" and compared it to finding the remains of the very first human on earth.
The research suggests galaxies Segue-1, Bootes I, Tucana II and Ursa Major I are some of the first star clusters ever formed.
This distance and old galaxies are weak light spots in orbit around our own Milky Way Galaxy.
If it is true, the galaxies would each be more than 13 billion years old.
The findings were published in The Astrophysical Journal by Carlos Frenk, Durham, in collaboration with Dr. Sownak Bose at Harvard Dr Alis Deason in Durham.
Dr. Frenk said: "Finding some of the very first galaxies that formed a orbit in the galaxy's own backyard in our universe is the astronomical equivalent of finding the remains of the first people who inhabited the earth. exciting. "
Scientists believe that some of the very first basic atoms started to form when the cosmos was only 380,000 years old.
These were hydrogen atoms – the least complex of all elements on the periodic table.
According to the CERN Institute in Switzerland, the home of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), the first moments after the universe arose were extremely hot and full.
Over time, as the universe cooled, the building blocks of matter, quarks, and electrons were called together to produce protons and neutrons.
Hundreds of thousands of years later, the first atoms of hydrogen began to form, soon followed by atoms of helium.
More than 1.6 million years later, the gravity of the monstrous clouds of hydrogen and helium began to form the very first stars and galaxies.
Further in the process, heavier elements such as carbon and iron began to form in the hearts of the stars and were released into space during supernova eruptions.
The researchers have now identified two sets of satellite systems that date from those very early days of the universe.
It is thought that one set of galaxies formed in the "cosmic dark ages" when the universe spent about 100 million years to cool down after the Big Bang.
The second group of galaxies was probably formed hundreds of millions of years later when ionized hydrogen cooled in so-called dark matter halos.
Dr. Sownak said: "A nice aspect of this work is that it emphasizes the complementarity between the predictions of a theoretical model and real data.
"Ten years ago the weakest galaxies in the neighborhood of the Milky Way would have gone under the radar.
"With the increasing sensitivity of current and future galaxies, a whole new group of the smallest galaxies has come to light, allowing us to test theoretical models in new regimes."
Dr. Deason has even added the smallest dwarf galaxies to answer many of the mysteries of the universe.