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We live in a warped and twisted & # 39; galaxy according to the first accurate 3D map of the galaxy




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Artist's impression of the warped and twisted Milky Way disc.Chen Xiaodian

How do you measure something that you are inside? We have all seen countless images of our own Milky Way, but have you ever considered this: none of them is real. All artists' impressions of what astronomers think the Milky Way is probably like.

We now know that the Milky Way is not flat. Astronomers from the National Astronomical Observatories of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (NAOC) and Macquarie University in Sydney, Australia have just published a paper Nature astronomy that reveals that the Milky Way is distorted, warped and spreading far away from the center of the Milky Way.

"We usually think of spiral galaxies as rather flat, like Andromeda, which you can easily see through a telescope," says Professor Richard de Grijs, a co-author and astronomer at Macquarie University.

The Andromeda Galaxy, or M31.Getty

How does the Milky Way work?

Viewed from a great distance, the Milky Way Galaxy would look like a thin disk with stars that circle the central region once every few hundred million years. The estimated 300 billion stars, together with a mass of dark matter, supply the gravity & # 39; glue & # 39; to keep everything together, the astronomers say.

What causes the S-shaped warp?

What is crooked are hydrogen clouds in the outer galaxy. It is the change in the attraction of gravity far from the inner regions of the galaxy that causes the S-shaped warp of the Milky Way. "It is notoriously difficult to determine distances to the Sun to parts of the outer gas disk of the Milky Way without having a clear idea what that disk actually looks like," & nbsp; said Dr. Chen Xiaodian, a researcher at NAOC and lead author of the article. "However, recently we published a new catalog of well-behaved variable stars, known as the classic Cepheïdie, for which distances can be determined as accurately as 3 to 5%."

RS Puppis is one of the brightest known variable stars of Cepheid in the Milky Way.Hubble space telescope

What is a Cepheid star?

Yellow bright giant and super-giant stars. Cepheid stars are often called cosmic standards & # 39; or & # 39;standard candlesand much of what astronomers know about distances in the universe is due to observations of these young pulsating stars. In the study 1339 Cepheid were examined, each up to 100,000 brighter than the sun.

Why are stars important for Cepheid?

Cepheid pulse predictable, so changes in their brightness can be used to one very reliable distance. The team used & # 39; classic & # 39; Cepheids, which pulsated in days or months. Cepheid was first discovered in 1912 by & nbsp; Henrietta Swan Leavitt & nbsp; at the Harvard College Observatory after studying thousands of variable stars in the & nbsp; Magellanic Clouds, two dwarf galaxies that revolve around the Milky Way. Her work was then used by Edwin Hubble to establish that some nebulae that could be seen from Earth were in fact distant galaxies themselves. That data was then used to calculate that the farther away the galaxy is, the faster it moves away from us: the Hubble constant, which expand the universe.

For the astronomers in China and Australia, data on these classic Cepheid stars were provided by the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE), allowing the team to develop the first accurate 3D-dimensional image of our Milky Way to its remote outer areas.

NASA & # 39; s Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer, or WISE, start & nbsp; in 2009. WISE scans the entire air in infrared light, captures the glow of hundreds of millions of objects and produces millions of photos.NASA

Why does this matter?

"Somewhat to our surprise, we discovered that in 3D our collection of 1,339 Cephe stars and the galaxy's gas disk closely follow us, providing new insights into the formation of our own galaxy," & Nbsp;said the Gray. "Perhaps more importantly, we found in the outer regions of the Milky Way that the S-like stellar disk is contorted in a progressively distorted spiral pattern."

"This new morphology provides a crucial updated map for studies of the star movements of our galaxies and the origin of the galaxy's disc," & Nbsp;said Dr. Deng Licai, senior researcher at NAOC and co-author of the paper.

What causes the warp?

In the past 50 years there have been indications that the hydrogen clouds in the Milky Way have been warped. Astronomers have observed a dozen other galaxies showing similar progressively twisted spiral patterns in their outer areas. "By combining our results with those other observations, we concluded that the warped spiral pattern of the Milky Way is most likely caused by" couples "or" force rotation, "due to the massive inner disc," & nbsp; said Dr. & nbsp; Liu Chao, senior researcher and co-author of the article.

I wish you a clear sky and big eyes

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Artist's impression of the warped and twisted Milky Way disc.Chen Xiaodian

How do you measure something that you are in? We have all seen countless images of our own Milky Way, but have you ever considered this: none of them is real. All artist impressions of what astronomers think the Milky Way is likely.

We now know that the Milky Way is not flat. Astronomers from the National Astronomical Observatory of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (NAOC) and Macquarie University in Sydney, Australia have just published a paper in Nature astronomy that reveals that the Milky Way is distorted, warped and spreading far away from the center of the Milky Way.

"We usually think of spiral galaxies as rather flat, like Andromeda, which you can easily see through a telescope," says Professor Richard de Grijs, a co-author and astronomer at Macquarie University.

The Andromeda Galaxy, or M31.Getty

How does the Milky Way work?

Viewed from a great distance, the Milky Way Galaxy would look like a thin disk with stars that circle the central region once every few hundred million years. The estimated 300 billion stars, together with a mass of dark matter, supply the gravity & # 39; glue & # 39; to keep everything together, the astronomers say.

What causes the S-shaped warp?

What is crooked are hydrogen clouds in the outer galaxy. It is the change in the attraction of gravity far from the inner regions of the galaxy that causes the S-shaped warp of the Milky Way. "It is notoriously difficult to determine distances from the sun to parts of the outer gas disk of the galaxy without having a clear picture of what that disk really looks like," said Dr. Chen Xiaodian, a researcher at NAOC and lead author of the article. "However, we recently published a new catalog of well-behaved variable stars, known as the classic Cepheïdie, for which distances can be determined as accurately as 3 to 5%."

RS Puppis is one of the brightest known variable stars of Cepheid in the Milky Way.Hubble space telescope

What is a Cepheid star?

Yellow bright giant and super-giant stars. Cephalic stars are often called cosmic standards & # 39; or & # 39; standard candles & # 39; and much of what astronomers know about distances in the universe is due to observations of these young pulsating stars. In the study 1339 Cepheid were examined, each up to 100,000 brighter than the sun.

Why are stars important for Cepheid?

Cepheid pulse predictable, so changes in their brightness can be used to obtain a very reliable distance. The team used & # 39; classic & # 39; Cepheids, which pulsated in days or months. Cepheid was first discovered in 1912 by Henrietta Swan Leavitt at the Harvard College Observatory after studying thousands of variable stars in the Magellanic Clouds, two dwarf galaxies orbiting the Milky Way. Her work was then used by Edwin Hubble to establish that some nebulae that could be seen from Earth were in fact distant galaxies themselves. That data was then used to calculate that the farther away the galaxy is, the faster it moves away from us: the Hubble constant, which describes the expanding universe.

For the astronomers in China and Australia, data on these classic Cepheid stars were provided by the Wide-field Inference Survey Explorer (WISE), allowing the team to develop the first accurate 3D-dimensional image of our Milky Way to its remote outer areas.

NASA's Wide-field Infrate Survey Explorer, or WISE, is launched in 2009. WISE scans the entire sky in infrared light, captures the glow of hundreds of millions of objects and produces millions of photos.NASA

Why does this matter?

"Somewhat to our surprise, we discovered that in 3D our collection of 1,339 stars from Cephe and the gas disk of the Milky Way closely follow each other, providing new insights into the formation of our home system," said the Gray. "Perhaps more importantly, in the outer regions of the Milky Way, we found that the S-like stellar disk is contorted in a progressively distorted spiral pattern."

"This new morphology provides a crucial updated map for research into the stellar movements of our galaxy and the origin of the galaxy's disc," said Dr. Deng Licai, senior researcher at NAOC and co-author of the paper.

What causes the warp?

In the past 50 years there have been indications that the hydrogen clouds in the Milky Way have been warped. Astronomers have observed a dozen other galaxies showing similar progressively twisted spiral patterns in their outer areas. "By combining our results with those other observations, we concluded that the warped spiral pattern of the Milky Way is most likely caused by" couples ", or" force forcing, "through the massive inner disc," said Dr. Liu Chao, senior researcher and co-author of the paper.

I wish you a clear sky and big eyes

If you liked this article, you might also like it:

Texas claims the third Dark Sky Sanctuary in the US if the fight against light pollution continues

Galaxy Slam Slam intoto Milky Way, Wake Up Black Hole and Could Send Solar System & flying in space & # 39;

Mysterious object & # 39; Missing link & # 39; found at the edge of the solar system by scientists using small telescopes

When is The Next & # 39; Super Blood Wolf Moon & # 39; How to see another lunar eclipse before you die


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